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Abstrakty/Abstracts

Zprávy České botanické společnosti 42/1, 2007


Abstrakty/Abstracts

† Hendrych R. & Müller J.
Phyllitis scolopendrium, historie a současnost na území České republiky
Phyllitis scolopendrium in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart auf dem Gebiet der Tschechischen Republik

Abstract
The paper deals with the first reports on the occurrence of Phyllitis scolopendrium in Bohemia and the Czech name used for this fern. Based on several facts, we have come to the conclusion that in the 16th century P. scolopendrium still grew in the wild in Bohemia. In the 17th century, the leaves of Hart’s-tongue were used as a medicinal herb. Some of the published records of its occurrence in Bohemia and also Moravia refer to escaped or cultivated plants. At present, P. scolopendrium does not grow anymore at its former localities in Bohemia. The current occurrence at natural sites goes back to recent introduction of spores. A special type of naturalisation is the repeated occurrence in open wells. In the Czech Republic, Hart’s-tongue is native only in the Moravian Karst, the Hranice Abyss and Trojačka Nature Reserve in the Veřovické vrchy Mts and most likely also in the surrounding of Třinec (near the village of Dolní Líštná), all in Moravia and Silesia. The nativeness of the Silesian site in the surrounding of Třinec is disputable, but it is a native occurrence probably too. P. scolopendrium is a critically endangered species in the Czech Republic, obviously for its low number of sites. For unknown reasons it disappeared from the Josefské údolí valley in the Moravian Karst, but at other sites in this region it gradually spreads. However, Impatiens parviflora, invading through the Punkva valley from Blansko to Pustý žleb, poses a threat to them.

Duchoslav M., Bártová V. & Krahulec F.
Rozšíření druhů rodu česnek (Allium) v České republice. II. Druhy sekce Rhizirideum (A. angulosum, A. senescens subsp. montanum)
Geographical distribution of Allium species in the Czech Republic. II. Species of sect. Rhizirideum (A. angulosum, A. senescens subsp. montanum)

Abstract
The distribution of the two taxa of the genus Allium sect. Rhizirideum (Allium angulosum, A. senescens subp. montanum) on the territory of the Czech Republic was studied. Allium angulosum is an endangered species sparsely distributed in two large but isolated areas at lower altitudes with a warm climate (East Bohemia and the north-eastern part of Central Bohemia; South Moravia and the southern part of Central Moravia). Additionally, there are two isolated localities in the hills of South and Southeastern Bohemia and one locality in the north-western part of Central Bohemia. Allium angulosum usually inhabits wet meadows in floodplains but rarely occurs in semidry grasslands of the Cirsi-Brachypodion pinnati alliance and in thermophilous oak forests of the Aceri tatarici-Quercion and Quercion petraeae alliances. During the 20th century, the species disappeared from many localities due to changes of grassland management (absence of mowing, drainage) or complete destruction of localities (ploughing and turning into arable land). Allium senescens subsp. montanum shows a scattered but uneven distribution over the Czech Republic. Most of its localities are situated on rocky ground and cliffs in deep and usually V-shaped valleys of rivers and on rock outcrops of hills in hilly areas. The species occurs rarely on dry sands in the lowlands of the Labe and Morava rivers (East Bohemia, South Moravia) and on loess soils (around the town of Vyškov). The species typically occurs in rock-outcrop vegetation (Alysso-Festucion pallentis alliance) and less frequently in other communities of the Festuco-Brometea class. Less often the species occurs in thermophilous oak forests (Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae order), acidophilous oak forests (Quercetalia robori-petraeae order) and relic pine forests.

Ducháček M., Hroudová Z. & Marhold M.
Rod Bolboschoenus v květeně České republiky II. Bolboschoenus yagara, B. laticarpus
The genus Bolboschoenus in the Czech Republic. II. Bolboschoenus yagara, B. laticarpus

Abstract
Taxonomy and distribution in the Czech Republic as well as morphological variation and habitat characteristics of Bolboschoenus yagara and B. laticarpus are presented. B. yagara is a morphologically little variable taxon, clearly distinguished by its habitats (littoral zones of standing waters on acid, nutrient-poor soils). Consequently, the species is typical of flat fishpond basins. B. laticarpus is the most frequent species in the Czech Republic, with a wide ecological amplitude, distributed mainly along rivers and in river floodplains. Some intermediate morphological characters and its habitat amplitude indicate its possible hybrid origin (B. yagara × B. maritimus or B. planiculmis).

Kolář F., Kubešová M., Těšitel J. & Koutecký P.
Květena vesnic v CHKO Blanský les
Synanthropic flora of villages in the Blanský les Protected Landscape Area

Abstract The flora of villages in the Blanský les Protected Landscape Area was studied. Lists of all species except for those apparently cultivated were made in August 2003, when synanthropic vegetation was optimally developed. In total, 455 species were recorded in 40 villages. The average number of species per village was 153 (minimum 86, maximum 227). Twelve species included in red lists were found. Remarks on the occurrence of selected species are given.

Otýpková Z.
Poznámky k současnému rozšíření Veronica agrestis v České republice
Notes on the recent distribution of Veronica agrestis in the Czech Republic

Abstract
Thirty-six new localities of Veronica agrestis, a strongly threatened weed taxon, are reported from the Czech Republic based on field research conducted in 2005–2006. Some of the finds represent new records of this species in six phytogeographical regions of the Czech Republic. Literature revision further broadened the range of its known localities. The new records originate primarily from higher altitudes. Veronica agrestis occurs as a weed both in cereals and root-crops, without preference for any specific weed community. The species has become rare due to the intensification of agricultural practise. It is also partially overlooked by botanists in the field.

Jongepier J. W., Fajmon K. & Otýpková Z.
Významné nálezy cévnatých rostlin v Chráněné krajinné oblasti Bílé Karpaty a v přilehlém okolí: nové druhy pro území
Significant finds of vascular plants in the Bílé Karpaty (White Carpathians) Protected Landscape Area and its vicinity: species new to the area

Abstract
The discovery of 36 vascular plant species found mostly during floristic grid mapping, which were not known from the area of the White Carpathian Mts. (Bílé Karpaty) before, is reported and commented. Most species have been introduced into the area by human activity (road repair, building activities, soil heaps, spreading along roads). Even species occurring in natural habitats elsewhere in the Czech Republic, such as Lastrea limbosperma, Isolepis setacea, Cardaminopsis halleri, Gagea minima, and Leucojum vernum, have been mostly introduced to similar habitats in the area. Only the species Orobanche purpurea subsp. purpurea has expanded its distribution area in a natural way. Lithospermum arvense subsp. sibthorpianum represents a taxon unique to the Czech flora.

Gerža M. & Čepa L.
Nová lokalita Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica v polské části Orlických hor
A new locality of Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica in the Polish part of the Orlické hory/Góry Orlickie Mts.

Abstract
Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica has been found in the Polish part of the Orlické hory/Góry Orlickie Mts. The population consists of more than 200 plants and is the only extant locality in the Polish part of the Orlické hory/Góry Orlickie Mts. The locality is described in the report. Other sites situated near-by where Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica occurs are also mentioned.

Gerža M.
Některá horská společenstva Orlických hor
Some mountain plant communities of the Orlické hory Mts.

Abstract
The study deals with the mountain vegetation of the Orlické hory Mts – subalpine tall-forb vegetation (association Chaerophyllo-Cicerbitetum alpinae), montane grey alder gallery forests (association Alnetum incanae), and montane sycamore-beech forests (association Aceri-Fagetum). Only communities rare or little known from the Orlické hory Mts are included in the paper. The composition and distribution of these plant communities are described in the paper.

Boublík K.
Pokus o rekonstrukci potenciální přirozené vegetace vybraného území Třeboňské pánve
Attempt to reconstruct the potential natural vegetation of a selected area of the Třeboň Basin (South Bohemia, Czech Republic)

Abstract
The paper deals with the results of reconstructed natural vegetation mapping in the Třeboň Basin based on geobiocoenological principles (bedrock, soil, climatic and growth conditions for tree species) and published palynological studies from the study area. The main result of this study is a potential natural vegetation map of a model transect through the Basin. This transect covers most habitat types typical of the area. Based on occurrence and growth features of climax trees (especially Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba) and published palynological studies, I presuppose a lower occurrence of Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur in contrary to existing reconstruction maps (maps of reconstructed natural vegetation, potential natural vegetation and forest site maps). On the other hand, the proportion of Fagus sylvatica in these maps is probably underestimated. I assume beech forests or forests with a great proportion of beech to have grown also on Dystric Cambisols and Podzols developed from gravel sand of Pleistocene alluvial terraces and on Planosols.

Boublík K., Bílek O. & Žárník M.
Co vlastně zobrazují české (re)konstrukční geobotanické mapy?
What do the Czech maps of (re)constructed vegetation really show?

Abstract
The interpretation of maps of reconstructed and/or constructed potential natural vegetation (PNV) in the Czech Republic is discussed. Despite the original concept of PNV intended to determine the hypothetical terminal vegetation stages, the (re)constructed vegetation units are usually based on the classification of existing plant communities. The syntaxa of real vegetation used in the (re)construction are often interpreted as climax communities. However, most of the real vegetation that is generally thought as natural is made up of semi-natural communities. Particularly at lower altitudes, vegetation has been modified by long-lasting human impact (e.g. settlement and forest management – pasture, coppicing, litter raking). Nowadays, changes in species composition occur in many oak and oak-hornbeam forests, although they are considered to be climax communities terminating succession. Real plant communities indicate a rather unbalanced state or, in other words, subclimax vegetation conditioned by human impact (a subclimax community is of the same vegetation formation as a climax but with different dominant species or composition). It could be misleading if such PNV units are indicated as climax vegetation.
We consider the recent (subclimax) PNV-maps a valuable instrument for the management of today’s semi-natural forests or conservation of light-demanding species. On the other hand, we propose the application of geobiocoenological (ecosystem) methods for the mapping of climax stages if knowledge of long-term succession is required. Geobiocoenological mapping is based on growth features and competition of tree species, bedrock, climate and soil properties. The proportion of forests dominated by Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba is evidently underestimated in the recent PNV-maps if compared with the results of geobiocoenological mapping, while the proportion of oak and oak-hornbeam forests is, by contrast, highly overestimated. Comparison of PNV-maps and maps constructed by means of geobiocoenology might have important implications in forest management, an evaluation of vegetation stability or nature conservation activities.

Karlík P. & Chvojková E.
Natura 2000 a Česká botanická společnost
Natura 2000 and the Czech Botanical Society

Abstract
Natura 2000 was prepared rather thoroughly in the Czech Republic. Unfortunatelly, because of lack of time, many valuable sites were missing on the national list of sites. Therefore, the Czech Botanical Society together with other non-governmental organisations compiled a so-called shadow list of sites and sent it to the European Commission. NGO delegates participated in the Biogeographical Seminar in April 2006, where the sufficiency of the national list of habitat types was evaluated. Most of our arguments were accepted and the Czech Republic has to complete a national list with additional sites. Cooperation of the NGOs continues, now focusing on a critical monitoring of habitat types.