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Abstrakty/Abstracts

Zprávy České botanické společnosti 44/1, 2009


Abstrakty/Abstracts

Sádlo J.
Erythronium dens-canis v Čechách: uvěříme původnosti?
Erythronium dens-canis in Bohemia: can we accept its native origin?

Abstract
An isolated occurrence of Erythronium dens-canis on Medník hill in Central Bohemia has been known for about 180 years and many Czech botanists believe in the native status of this species at this locality and, consequently, in the Czech Republic. Whereas this opinion was summarised by Hendrych (2004), the present paper is rather sceptical to any unequivocal explanations, because solid evidence lacks. The paper compares the probability of possible mechanisms causing diaspore transmission and formation of the local population under study. The existing argumentation was mainly based on the local relict survival of this species. But rare relict species generally persist in extraordinarily suitable conditions of a rare refuge (e.g., native E. dens-canis in a remote locality in SE Slovakia) whereas Medník hill is a rather ordinary locality. The local biotope of the species is an oak-hornbeam forest of standard composition and structure with many analogies to river valleys of Central Bohemia, SW Moravia and N Austria, so that that a single refuge of this species in the area is extremely unlikely. Moreover, during the Middle Ages and partly in modern times, the vegetation development of Medník hill was disrupted under strong influence of human activities such as gold mining or woodland grazing and cutting. These findings deconstruct the idea that the species survived on Medník hill as a relict in unimpaired natural conditions. Our belief in the native origin of the studied population is hardly legitimate if it is based on its relict status but it can be justified if we suppose the extraordinary but not impossible event of natural long-distance transport of diaspores. The potential mechanism of transport is unknown. E. dens-canis is a species spreading by heavy seeds adapted to myrmecochory but its nearest localities are situated at about 300 km. Finally, the considerably high probability of man-made origin of the population is beyond doubt because of the broad spectrum of possible anthropogenic influences responsible for the transmission of diaspores and the formation of the population. The species E. dens-canis is able to invade the area occasionally. This is indicated by its large spontaneous populations formed at some Central European localities where it had been cultivated in the past.

Soják J.
Potentilla lindackeri a P. psammophila (podsekce Collinae) v Čechách
Potentilla lindackeri and P. psammophila (subsection Collinae) in Bohemia (Notes on Potentilla XXVII.)

Abstract
Potentilla lindackeri is a species of hybrid origin, derived from the combination of P. argentea × P. verna. This article presents the history of its discovery, synonymy, description, ecology and distribution in Bohemia. Potentilla psammophila has originated from the same parental combination. It is close to P. rhenana from the Rhineland (Germany) in the shape of its leaflets and their dentation, but it has small flowers (like P. lindackeri). This difference is constant. The origin of taxa from subsect. Collinae is discussed. Differential characters and identification difficulties are mentioned as well.

Růžička V. & Koblížek J.
Kakost nachový (Geranium purpureum), nový druh pro květenu České republiky
Geranium purpureum, new species to the flora of the Czech Republic

Abstract Geranium purpureum was found for the first time in the Czech Republic in 2005. Its locality is situated at the railway station of Hrušovany u Brna, about 20 km south of Brno. Later it was observed at other localities, Popovice by Rajhrad, Modřice, Rajhrad u Brna, Vojkovice nad Svratkou and Brno-Horní Heršpice, and finally at all railway stations between Brno and Hrušovany on the railway from Brno to Břeclav. Its occurrence is obviously connected to the total reconstruction of the railway corridor between Brno and Břeclav. Its occurrence in the Czech Republic was expected by Slavík (Slavík 1997). Our last knowledge confirms fast spread between stations. Geranium purpureum occurs mostly in coarse gravel and finds best conditions below panel platforms, where it is protected against herbicides, drought and strong sunshine.

Vinikarová A.
Oktoploidní Senecio jacobaea versus S. erucifolius na jižní Moravě
Octoploid Senecio jacobaea versus S. erucifolius in South Moravia

Abstract
The chromosome number 2n=80 for Senecio erucifolius from Moravský Krumlov (South Moravia) was published in the list of chromosome counts by Měsíček & Jarolímová (1992), but a herbarium voucher probably does not exist. Grulich (2005) expected that this chromosome count would belong to S. jacobaea, as all counts of S. erucifolius have shown 2n=40 to date, and S. erucifolius was never collected at this well-known locality. The locality was thoroughly investigated in this study and only plants of S. jacobaea were found. The octoploid cytotype (2n=80) of S. jacobaea was confirmed using flow cytometry and chromosome counting. This result confirms the hypothesis of misidentification. So far, only one locality of octoploid plants (2n=80) of Senecio jacobaea had been known in the Czech Republic - Pavlovské vrchy near Mikulov (Grulich 2005). Recently, eight new localities of octoploid Senecio jacobaea have been discovered in South Moravia.

Businský R.
Borovice blatka v novém pojetí
A new concept in bog pine

Abstract
Bog pine, a Central European taxon from the Pinus mugo complex was recently circumscribed as subendemic for the Czech Republic with several overlapping occurrences at a maximum distance of 25-30 km from the Bohemian frontier. In the past twenty years this taxon has been interpreted as Pinus rotundata in the Czech botanical literature. An extensive study of natural populations of the Pinus mugo complex throughout its distribution range from E Spain to Balkan led the author to form a new taxonomic and biogeographic concept of bog pine, for which the correct name Pinus uncinata subsp. uliginosa is accepted. This taxon is newly defined here based on taxonomy, biogeography and nomenclature. Localities of all recently confirmed, supposedly non-introgressive populations of bog pine are listed. Comments on interspecific introgressive or hybrid populations of bog pine, on the biogeography and taxonomy of Pinus uncinata s. l., and on Pinus × pseudopumilio are included.

Nepraš K. & Batoušek P.
Epipactis leptochila subsp. leptochila - nový taxon pro květenu České republiky
Epipactis leptochila subsp. leptochila - a new taxon to the flora of the Czech Republic

Abstract
In 2008, Epipactis leptochila (Godfery) Godfery subsp. leptochila was found for the first time on the territory of the Czech Republic. Its occurrence was recorded at the foot of a basalt hill called Štěpánovský vrch in the České středohoří Mts, NW Bohemia, where the species grows in a shady hornbeam forest and a light fringe of an oak-hornbeam forest. The article reports details about the location and population density, and provides phytosociological relevés of both sites. It also includes a morphological description of the species and a key to distinguish the habitually closest taxa.

Duchoslav M. & Krahulec F.
Rozšíření druhů rodu česnek (Allium) v České republice. IV. Druhy sekce Allium (A. scorodoprasum, A. rotundum)
Geographical distribution of Allium species in the Czech Republic. IV. Species of sect. Allium (A. scorodoprasum, A. rotundum)

Abstract
The distribution and habitat conditions of two taxa of the genus Allium sect. Allium (Allium scorodoprasum, A. rotundum) were studied on the territory of the Czech Republic. Allium scorodoprasum is sparsely distributed in two large but isolated areas (East Bohemia, northern part of Central Bohemia, and North and West Bohemia; South, Central and East and Northeast Moravia), usually in corridors of large lowland rivers (Labe, Morava, Dyje), their tributaries and adjacent hills. A. scorodoprasum usually inhabits both primary (forest) and secondary (non-forest) habitats. It was frequently recorded in floodplain forests of the Ulmenion and Alnenion glutinoso-incanae suballiances, in oak-hornbeam forests of the Carpinion alliance, and less frequently in thermophilous forests of the Aceri tatarici-Quercion and Quercion petraeae alliances. It also occurs in wet (Deschampsion cespitosae alliance) and mesophilous (Arrhenatherion elatioris) grasslands, fringes of lowland rivers, forest fringes and semidry broad-leaved grasslands (Brometalia erecti order), arable land (especially in the past), vineyards, field borders, road verges, semi-ruderal scrub and Robinia pseudacacia stands. A. rotundum is rarely distributed in two isolated areas (Central and Northwest Bohemia; South, Southeast and Central Moravia) with a warm climate, usually in lower altitudes up to 400 m a. s. l. A. rotundum inhabits various types of dry grasslands and forest fringes of the Festuco-Brometea class, it also occurs less frequently in stands of the Sedo-Scleranthetea class, Stipion calamagrostis alliance, and dry forests of the Quercion pubescenti-petraeae alliance. In the past, it was frequently recorded as a weed in cereal crops and vineyards, but during the second part of the 20th century it almost disappeared from these habitats. Its populations, however, survive in the field borders, road verges, semi-ruderal scrub and Robinia pseudacacia stands.

Lepší M. & Lepší P.
Ostružiník hornorakouský (Rubus muhelicus) v České republice
Rubus muhelicus in the Czech Republic

Abstract
The distribution of Rubus muhelicus Danner [section Rubus, subsection Hiemales E. H. L. Krause in Prahl, series Radula (Focke) Focke] in the Czech Republic is described based on a detailed field research and herbarium revisions (CB, LI, V. Žíla's herbarium). The species was recorded at 28 localities in the southernmost part of the Czech Republic. Rubus muhelicus grows most frequently in forest habitats (nemophilous ecoelement) such as ditches and edges of forest roads, plantations, forest margins and clearings, rarely outside of forests such as scrubby vegetation and its margins. It mainly inhabits mesic, acid and mineral-poor soils. Diagnostic characters that separate R. muhelicus from the most similar species growing in the Czech Republic (R. epipsilos, R. silvae-norticae, and R. indusiatus) are provided. The occurrence of R. muhelicus was also confirmed for regions of Upper Austria (49 localities), Lower Austria (1 locality) and Upper Bavaria (1 locality). Published records from other regions need to be revised and were not accepted in this paper. This contribution also includes a Czech description of the species, a map of its entire distribution, a detailed map of its distribution in the Czech Republic, a list of revised herbarium specimens and a line drawing of the species. Rubus muhelicus is regarded a Danubian migrant (distributed from Upper Austria to South Bohemia) in the Czech flora.

Hradílek Z. & Němcová L.
Rozšíření mechů Fissidens arnoldii a F. rufulus v České republice a na Slovensku
Distribution of the mosses Fissidens arnoldii and F. rufulus in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Abstract
The distribution of the mosses Fissidens arnoldii and F. rufulus in the Czech Republic and Slovakia is presented. Both species are rare hygrophilous mosses with similar ecology. The list of localities is based solely on revised herbarium specimens; relevant references are included. F. arnoldii and F. rufulus are known from 10 and 34 localities, respectively.

Láníková D.
Neofyty na zdech v České republice
Neophytes on walls in the Czech Republic

Abstract
The neophytic wall flora in the Czech Republic was studied using 935 phytosociological relevés recorded on wall habitats by different authors. In comparison with other habitat types in the country, a high number of neophytes (14%, calculated from 479 species of vascular plants) was recorded on walls. Most of them occur only accidentaly with low frequency. The most frequent neophytes are Conyza canadensis, Corydalis lutea and Cymbalaria muralis. Regarding different modes of introduction, the highest number of neophytes was introduced deliberately into the country (74%). These species are mainly ornamental plants, followed by medicinal plants and woody species used for landscape planning. With regard to the invasive status, most neophytes recorded on walls belong to invasive species (40%). Less often naturalised species and casuals are represented (34% and 26%). The most frequent invasive neophytes include common ruderal plants with good dispersal characteristics (e.g. Conyza canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) and woody ornamental species (e.g. Ailanthus altissima, Lycium barbarum, Robinia pseudacacia and Syringa vulgaris). Neophytes new to the Czech Republic recorded on walls are the ornamental plants Artemisia nitida, Campanula carpatica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Pseudofumaria alba.

Brabec J. [ed.]
Publikace s botanickou tématikou za rok 2008
Publications with botanical items from 2008

Abstract
The first part of this new section gives information on selected publications and journals with botanical items which came out in 2008. In the first place works from the field of vascular plants and regional articles on flora and vegetation published in the Czech Republic are mentioned. An arbitrary selection of works from other botanical fields completes the overview. The section is divided into four chapters: books, periodicals, proceedings, and various. Most publications (except periodicals) are briefly annotated.

Štefánek M. & Štěpánková R.
Zpráva o činnosti České botanické společnosti za rok 2008
Czech Botanical Society Annual Report 2008

Štech M.
Odešel otec jihočeských botaniků (Václav Chán 28. 6. 1929 - 15. 2. 2009)