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Abstrakty/Abstracts

Zprávy České botanické společnosti 46/2, 2011


Abstrakty/Abstracts

Lepší M., Velebil J. & Lepší P.
Pěstování a adventivní výskyt (Sorbus austriaca) v České republice
Sorbus austriaca, new alien and rarely cultivated taxon in the Czech Republic

Abstract
Sorbus austriaca is included in the recent Key to the Flora of the Czech Republic as a native species. Our study of the type material of this species and a field investigation at localities given in the protologue (Lower Austria) indicate that the plants regarded as S. austriaca in the Czech Republic belong to other taxa. Sorbus austriaca is not native to the Czech Republic but is rarely grown in towns for ornamental purposes or exceptionally planted along roads in the countryside. Twelve localities of cultivated S. austriaca were found in the Czech Republic. The species was also recorded non-cultivated by the towns of Průhonice and Benešov in Bohemia. A young escaped individual was found near an old cultivated tree of S. austriaca in Průhonice Park. Several escaped plants grow in a hedge of a private garden in Benešov. Dozens of young individuals of unknown origin occur in a wood on Žďár hill near the town of Rokycany. This population was probably mistakenly regarded as a new undescribed hybridogenous species in the Czech botanical literature. The year of the first introduction of the species is not exactly known, but the oldest documented planting is from 1966. Neither cultivation nor escape of the species has probably been reported throughout Europe yet. A distribution map of these escaped and grown individuals of S. austriaca within the Czech Republic and a list of herbarium specimens are given. A plant description, including its distribution and ecology in Europe are provided. A photograph and a line drawing of the species are included as well.

Dřevojan P., Roleček J., Žáková K. & Bartoňová L.
Nové poznatky o rozšíření prorostlíku prutnatého (Bupleurum affine) na Moravě
New information on the distribution of Bupleurum affine in Moravia, Czech Republic

Abstract
Four new sites of Bupleurum affine were recorded between 2005 and 2010 in SW Moravia. The paper summarises historical and recent records of the species in the Czech Republic and its ecological preferences. Site conditions and vegetation composition of the newly discovered sites are characterised. The sites comprise disturbed ruderal grasslands, a field margin and a road cutting, i.e. warm and dry disturbed habitats, often with other rare species present.

Lepší P., Lepší M., Boublík K. & Kolář F.
Reliktní a izolovaný výskyt Prunus fruticosa u Českého Krumlova
Relict and isolated occurrence of Prunus fruticosa by the town of Český Krumlov (South Bohemia, Czech Republic)

Abstract
A very isolated and probably relic locality of Prunus fruticosa in the surroundings of the town of Český Krumlov in South Bohemia is described. The occurrence of the species in this region was first documented as far back as 1829 by J. Jungbauer and has been confirmed recently after remaining unnoticed for more than 100 years. The nearest occurrence of the species is ca 80 km to the east (Moravia) and 100 km to the north (Central Bohemia) of Český Krumlov. Prunus fruticosa has probably become extinct at 2 of 3 historically known localities in the surroundings of this town. Today it occurs rarely at only one locality where it is confined to an area of a few square meters. This last remaining population is threatened by direct destruction of the locality, the spread of tall shrubs and hybridisation with Prunus cerasus (commonly planted in the town). Prunus × eminens occurs at another 6 localities in the surroundings of the locality and spreads spontaneously to semi-natural or man-made habitats. Prunus fruticosa and P. × eminens create low xeric scrubs (Prunetum fruticosae association) and its ruderal or mesic variants. The Prunetum fruticosae association was recorded in the region of South Bohemia for the first time. Prunus × eminens inhabits also xeric scrubs (Pruno-Ligustretum vulgaris) and edges of open forests or tall growths of Corylus avellana (Carpinion). Geometric morphometrics were used to display the intermediate position in leaf lamina shape of the hybrids. A key for the identification of the hybrid and its parents is provided and a detailed distribution map of Prunus fruticosa and the hybrid Prunus × eminens in the surroundings of the Český Krumlov is presented as well.

Danihelka J.
Kruhatka Matthiolova (Cortusa matthioli) v Sudetech aneb anti-Hendrych
Cortusa matthioli in the Sudeten Mountains (Czech Republic) revisited: challenging Prof. Hendrych´s methods and beliefs

Abstract
In 2003, the late Professor Radovan Hendrych published a study in which he argued that Cortusa matthioli, currently known in Czechia only from one site in the Moravian Karst in southern Moravia, had occurred in the Krkonoše Mts in northern Bohemia and in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts in northern Moravia until the 16th and 19th century, respectively. He based his opinion on the description of C. matthioli in the natural history book Stirpium et fossilium Silesiae catalogus, by C. Schwenckfelt (published in 1600), in which the species is said to occur in the valleys of the Krkonoše Mts, and on a specimen of C. matthioli, now deposited in the herbarium of the Silesian Museum in Opava (OP), reportedly collected by F. von Mückusch (1749-1837) near the town of Jeseník. A comparison of the Cortusa description by Schwenckfelt with the "protologue" published by Mattioli in 1565 and with illustrations in some other contemporary herbals has shown that C. Schwenckfelt may never have seen the plant himself as he only modified and abridged earlier descriptions in an inappropriate manner, including the statement about white flowers. Hendrych's speculations about abundant stands of Cortusa in the Krkonoše mountain valleys, used as supporting argument, are based on his wrong translation of the original Latin text. Mückusch's specimen, first reported by Josef Duda 60 years ago, is one of several dozen specimens of a thermophilous, Carpathian or other species, reportedly collected or seen by Mückusch in northern Moravia or in the adjacent part of Silesia. However, even their former presence in the region is very unlikely for ecological and phytogeographical reasons, and the locality information given in floras or on labels has therefore to be considered untruthful; Mückusch may have acquired the specimens by exchange with other contemporary botanists. Therefore, there is no evidence for historical occurrence of C. matthioli in northern Bohemia and northern Moravia.

Eliáš P. jun., Dítě D., Melečková Z. & Király G.
Poznámky k výskytu vybraných zriedkavých druhov poľných depresií na Podunajskej nížine (juhozápadné Slovensko)
Notes on the occurrence of some rare plant species of field depressions in the Podunajská nížina Lowland (SW Slovakia)

Abstract
In wet years, field depressions are flooded, which provides refugia for many wetland plant species in shallow pools in intensively managed arable fields. During our field research of these habitats in the Podunajská nížina Lowland (SW Slovakia) in 2010, we found six critically endangered (Chenopodium chenopodioides, Heleochloa alopecuroides, H. schoenoides, Lindernia procumbens, Lythrum tribracteatum and Schoenoplectus supinus) and one endangered (Cirsium brachycephalum) plant species. Brief information about vegetation types, population sizes and locations characteristics are given for all recorded species. Moreover, the association Lythretum hyssopifolii-tribracteati Slavnič 1951 is reported as new to Slovakia.

Popelářová M., Hlisníkovský D., Koutecký P., Dančák M., Tkáčiková J., Vašut R. J., Vymazalová M., Dvorský M., Lustyk P. & Ohryzková L.
Rozšíření vybraných taxonů cévnatých rostlin v CHKO Beskydy a blízkém okolí (Výsledky mapování flóry z let 2006-2009)
Distribution of selected vascular plants taxa in the Beskydy Protected Landscape Area and in its close surroundings (Results of botanical grid mapping during 2006-2009)

Abstract
An overview of recent localities (usually less than 10 years old) of 73 taxa in the Beskydy Protected Landscape Area and its surroundings (Western Carpathians, NE Czech Republic) is given, based on field grid mapping and revision of herbarium material in public herbaria. The list of taxa includes mainly threatened and phytogeographically important taxa of which new localities were discovered in recent years. A few cases of regionally rare taxa and taxa from taxonomically critical groups not previously recognised in the area are also included. For each taxon, brief comments on past and present distribution, ecological demands and management of the localities are added.

Gerža M., Myšková Z. & Kučera J.
Montia fontana a M. hallii v Orlických horách
Montia fontana and M. hallii in the Orlické hory Mountains

Abstract
The article deals with Montia fontana and M. hallii in the Orlické hory Mts (Eagle Mountains, Sudeten Mts). The former species is critically endangered, the latter strongly endangered in the Czech Republic. Both species occur on meadow springs. This habitat is very rare and endangered particularly by eutrophication and drainage. The research was conducted during the period 2005-2010. An overview of all localities of the species in the study area is presented. The species were recorded at 33 localities since the end of the 19th century. Most sites were discovered in the past years. Additionally, 21 relevés were recorded at 15 meadow spring localities. The vegetation with Montia species belongs to meadow springs association Philonotido fontanae-Montietum rivularis and rarely to reed vegetation of brooks of the alliance Sparganio-Glycerion fluitantis. This vegetation occurs on wet and open sites with a low amount of nutrients. The chemical reaction of the spring water is acidic or neutral.